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Wednesday, March 21, 2018

Radical Update For A Literary Favorite

Rebecca Of Sunnybrook Farm (1938) Is Now A Big Broadcast

Some months back, Greenbriar looked at Little Lord Fauntleroy, beloved novel source for adaptation right to present day. Cousin to LLF was Rebecca Of Sunnybrook Farm, published in 1903 and basis for multiple films both silent and talking. Hardship of farm life was keynote, but movies never sat well with that, and besides, Rebecca was for cheering fans of whatever child idol played her. First was not unexpectedly Mary Pickford, her own good will among a public meshing nicely with the book's. A first sound treatment (1932) was by Fox and reasonably faithful, though tough to locate now. Rebecca Of Sunnybrook Farm was by then purest soap for many who were fed up with grubbier precode, as illustrated by ad below that puts blunt one showman's outreach to clean entertainment. " --- escape from ruthless rackets and sordid crooks ... tinseled women and beady-eyed gigolos ... " Promotion like this was proof that not everyone was enamored of movies that spelled out sin. Not a few parents were forbidding movies altogether to offspring, so raunchy had they gotten. Rebecca Of Sunnybrook Farm was then " ... as refreshing as a mountain breeze," and a film safe for "the Whole Family."

Few saw coming a wholesale revamp 20th would do when next came Rebecca Of Sunnybrook Farm in 1938, a singing reproof to no-fun on the farm too long the bane for previous Rebecca readers, and watchers of film versions gone past. Those who wanted fidelity to the book could go fish, for here was new day and one not to be disguised by advertising, Fox up front as to streamlining and "happiness hook-up" for the "great (old) piece of entertainment property." There was, of course, pecking order for literary classics, many for which a public built walls against Hollywood philistinism, while others less revered might be cut to fit current fashion. Rebecca Of Sunnybrook Farm appears to have been, by 1938, among the latter. I wonder how many, if any, complained upon exit from theatres crowding for Shirley Temple. She was still princess of all surveyed on the 20th lot, the more so because her vehicles were made economically and so showed profits habitually a best or near so for years they came out (Rebecca Of Sunnybrook Farm was surpassed only by Alexander's Ragtime Band for 1938 gain). Zanuck policy had lately eased Temple into re-work of Mary Pickford properties, plus explore of child stories everyone knew from their own youth, thus a pre-sold label shipping out with each. Rebecca Of Sunnybrook Farm then, would serve less its source novel than a ready audience for whatever showcased Shirley Temple.

Shirley Temple was approaching slicker ice, 1938 a last banner year before a decline wiser heads would have seen coming. Irony was her performing talent at peak, that a last line of defense against encroach of adolescence. DFZ and 20th handlers would not have kidded themselves that all this could last forever, though assurance Shirley showed ("I'm very self-reliant" her signature line in Rebecca Of Sunnybrook Farm) might argue to the contrary. Hadn't Variety assured that Shirley's "theatrical genius will carry her through the transition from chubby, imitative childhood to secure station as a great entertainer and money name in the adolescent phase of her career"? That wouldn't happen, as now known, though there would be an adolescent, then ingénue, career, if one far short of "money name" status Shirley Temple knew as a child. Variety's reviewer had not reckoned with a public's determination that she not grow up, doing so an affront to legions that loved Shirley.

If Disney's Snow White Been Live-Action, Would It Have Been Shirley Temple Who Met The Seven Dwarfs?

Proof that she had never been better came with wow finish to Rebecca Of Sunnybrook Farm that was "Toy Trumpet," a dancing duet with Bill Robinson and chorus. Variety blew trumpets of its own for Shirley's "extraordinary precision and skill" in doing the number "for seven minutes without a cut," the boost deserved but not accurate, as her sustained tap with Robinson goes just past two minutes w/o edit, still  extraordinary trouping on both their parts. Worthy of plaudits were five other tunes composed fresh for Rebecca Of Sunnybrook Farm, most hit-bound and positioning Temple for a next, Little Miss Broadway. Already there was nostalgia for Shirley days gone by, which she acknowledged by reprise of tunes from earlier vehicles, "On The Good Ship Lollipop" and "Animal Crackers in My Soup" having become standards over short seasons since she first performed them. Musicals might have been the genre to stay with, what with Shirley's increased aptitude for them, but later move to Metro, which would have seemed an ideal move at the time, saw her left in dust by engine that was Mickey Rooney and Judy Garland, two whose act could not be topped, or even approached, by added company. Unkindest cut was Temple told in tactless terms by MGM music and dance staff that she was nowhere near a talent standard they meant to maintain. Later pacting with Selznick would mostly exploit rather than exalt an awkward-aged Shirley (best of the bargain for DOS: her hugely publicized wedding to John Agar). Rebecca Of Sunnybrook Farm is available on quality DVD from Fox (with colorized viewing option), and Amazon streams the feature in HD.

Monday, March 19, 2018

When Critics Liked A Universal Horror Release

A British Way To Scare: Dead Of Night (1946)

In case you haven't watched, please do, as this is an abiding classic of chiller type where quiet UK countryside becomes stuff of nightmare thanks to five tales of terror wrapped round bucolic setting. US distribution by Universal played havoc, a couple of stories shorn altogether and doing damage to the rest (Universal oddly issued stills of the missing segments along with publicity for the film). Dead Of Night is carefully calibrated, so it's got to be seen complete. William K. Everson was a champion, naturally, him having been raised on the Isles, and he'd write eloquently about the omnibus in his Classics Of the Horror Film (published 1974), which made us long to see Dead Of Night, even as it remained difficult-to-catch until video came to the rescue. Dedicated enough horror fans generally have Dead Of Night on their Halloween plates, and evangelize on its behalf the rest of the year. Arguments tend to revolve around which is better: this, The Uninvited, The Haunting, or a handful of others among a pantheon of vintage scares.

The framing story appears to be merely that until climactic pay-off where all of what went before ties like a noose. Imitators have stole bolts from Dead Of Night cloth, but there's no duplicating  atmosphere lost to time that was immediate postwar in England, its unsettling quality lent by unique moment and place. The stories are told casually by guests at a country house with no particular set-up for ghostly mood. It isn't night, let alone a stormy or baleful one. The light outside a window is reassuring. In other words, Dead Of Night doesn't need the tropes that made so many US chillers anything but chilling. There were top talents applying themselves to spookery here, a group of directors turning hands to separate portions of the whole. Your favorite among the tales might vary according to views. I find each effective save a misjudged comedic break that we'll presume was put there for halfway relief of tension.

The stories begin brief. A racecar driver crashes and sees portent of doom from his hospital room. This one goes by quick, but packs a punch of Miles Malleson, future light presence at Hammer, as a hearse, then bus, driver issuing cheery invitation to premature death. Then there's Sally Ann Howes telling of a Christmas party where she encountered specter of a years-before murdered child. That one's effective thanks to set design of a house with many a hidden passage; you could easily imagine ghosts making their undetected place here. Third comes the Haunted Mirror, which Everson regarded best of the lot, and here's where intensity ramps up. Audiences maybe needed the light serving that followed of Basil Radford and Naunton Wayne as golfers competing for love as well as on links, with haunting a result of one cheating the other on a bet. It's a weak link in an otherwise taut chain, not unlike the telephone story in Black Sabbath a few decades later, this where some will find usage of DVD's chapter skip feature.

The longest and most ambitious of the lot is a story from which elements just had to have been borrowed for Psycho, so striking are parallels between this tale of a ventriloquist possessed by his dummy and later on Norman Bates by his mother. The device of a ventriloquist performing in edgy opposition to his dummy seems to me an excellent concept for modern-day performing, if such could remain an act and not tip over into reality and consequent madness. There's something inherently frightful about deadly dummies, or devil dolls if you will, these being evergreen to the service of horror, as witness more recent success and sequels in the "Chucky" series. Dead Of Night must have walloped an English public when new. When had they been served home brew potent as this? Horror films had been discouraged for a large part in the UK, so a Dead Of Night was even more a departure from norm. Word-of-mouth must have been terrific.

Universal was the natural stateside handler for Dead Of Night, but not necessarily for its horrific content. Fact is, Uni preferred selling DoN as anything but a chiller, opting instead to emphasize "psychological" elements of the package. Suggested press for newspaper use was all over suspense that came of tormented minds, with ghosts and the supernatural played way down. What Universal wanted was another Spellbound, that having rung bells for Selznick-UA. Psychology being a prevailing fad put Dead Of Night into what Universal hoped would be a sophisticated column way above monsters they had but lately separated from. An early trade announcement (2/4/46) tipped Universal's enthusiasm for "dream sequences" they promised would pervade Dead Of Night, "FIVE completely separate dream stories woven into a central pattern," even though, of course, the company would end up dropping two of these before releasing the film in June, 1946.

Lift-off was at New York's Winter Garden, where Dead Of Night played four successful weeks. Universal prepared special ads quoting critics and promising something "Thrillingly Different" in screen entertainment, a picture that was "One in 10,000." The campaign was farmed to urban centers where there was potential for highbrow attendance. Universal knew Dead Of Night was deep-dish, but didn't want to sell it as an art film, their intent from a beginning to tender the import as "one of its top releases for the year," result being somewhat schizophrenic salesmanship, which may have been appropriate considering the psych push Uni had on the pic. Some territories chose a more lurid approach, Chicago's first-run pairing Dead Of Night with Desi Arnaz in Cuban Pete and using a scantily-clad cartoon to further boost Universal's elevated shock show. "Here is the picture that has New York movie-goers agog," said ads for the RKO Grand, positioning Dead Of Night as an "Adults Only" attraction. The pressbook got down to bally basic with ideas tried-and-true: having a "brave" couple watch Dead Of Night alone after midnight and rewarding them accordingly, building shadow boxes in the lobby through which "ghosts" could be seen, etc. In smaller markets, a greatest obstacle Dead Of Night had to overcome was the fact it was British and therefore less of a lure to rube patronage.

Saturday, March 17, 2018

RKO Sets The Price For Love

Ann Harding Claims The Right To Romance (1933)

Ann Harding was most grounded of precode women, hers a line in reasoned calm. Being thirty, then past it, lent characters sobriety welcome to the genre. Censorship choked life out of sex topic that was focal to Harding, Kay Francis, Chatterton, others who knew life's score, but could no longer express it on truth terms. Harding as most subdued of the lot meant she'd be early forgot. That plus lack of a signature role (The Animal Kingdom the closest, but out of circulation till long after her 1981 death). Harding underplayed and so seems modern today. When she beds down, it's less illicit than application of common sense. Convey of intelligence put Harding to enact of professional women, on this occasion a plastic surgeon who "smells of ether" and knows to get a man means playing the "giddy female." Shore vacation puts her in crosshair of idler rich Robert Young, whom she marries in haste to despair of medico Nils Asther, him loving from afar. This may crash on formula shoals but for brief spend (67 minutes) that most any precode can sustain (backdrops and fashion to look at if nothing else).

Search for beauty angle is well observed, women hoping facelifts will pave path to romance. Harding's surgeon can evidently fix any mishap or mutilation --- were real-life docs as proficient in 1933? Certainly there were stars of the era who sought cosmetic cure for age, few of them getting result so satisfactory as Dr. Harding delivers here. I'm wondering just when face work became panacea it's considered today. Based on horrors we still see emerge from operation tables (check any week's Enquirer), true success at such effort may still be in offing. The Right To Romance was made during Merian C. Cooper watch, his notion to increase RKO volume as offset for losses, modern-set stories done cheap and by bundles. Industry joke was same bundles out of RKO being product of unwed motherhood in one after another sex mellers spat out by the company. Primary risk to contract stars like Harding or Constance Bennett was overexposure or sameness of vehicles. Their party had to end whatever disposition of the Code. Among six RKO titles owned by Merian C. Cooper and tied up for years, The Right To Romance was revived in 2006 by TCM (another with Ann Harding in that group: Double Harness).

Friday, March 16, 2018

Lesson For Aspiring Exhibs

Let's Laud Louie Charninsky

We're all too free with that B movie tag. I've even seen King Kong and all of Ronald Reagan's films referred to as B's. A damning label in most quarters, it certainly should not be. Many think B means bad, so pardon my lifetime in thrall to Sherlock Holmes, Val Lewton, and westerns enough to thread a hemisphere. A "B" by accurate definition was what played in support of A's and rented at flat rate. Sometimes a pair of B's could fill a program, as here where Smashing The Money Ring (1939) plays with Gene Autry's In Old Monterey (15 to 20 cents til 6!). A creative enough showman could elevate a B to whatever heights he chose, Louie Charninsky not a name known to annals of marketing, but it should be for the whale of a selling job he did on behalf of Smashing The Money Ring at his Capitol Theatre in Dallas. That's Louie out front holding the blow-up of counterfeit currency which was Money Ring thrust. Magnet at the door was enlarged real dollars as opposed to funny money, passer-bys invited to compare the two as will Treasury Agent "Brass Bancroft," as played by Reagan in Warners' 57 minute sock-and-solve thriller. Spike to attendance was twenty-seven stills from the film on a center display, plus posters clearly handiwork of the Capitol's art shop. Think how long this preparation took for a show that ran two-three days, if that. Lesson to glean: B's were only B's when you sold them that way. Louie Charninsky followed his star (in this case, lack of them) and dressed an entrance anyone could be tempted toward. I hope Louie ate well that week for making thick steak of hamburger product. Men like him were what defined great showmanship.

Wednesday, March 14, 2018

A Welcome Western In 3-D

Gun Fury (1953) Promised Much, But Did It Deliver?

This By Far The Dominant Art Even On Euro Posters
A western was a western was a western by 1953, unless advertising could somehow set one apart from the rest. Often that was done with sex-specific ads, and promises of content that the film would not deliver. Why would Code policies be suspended for the likes of Gun Fury? --- yet exploitation as here gave hope that this time maybe things would be different, that we'd see a woman made victim of an "act of violence" while her man is bound up and made to watch. There was a scene in Gun Fury with a man tied and a woman carried off, but it was nowhere approximate to what lurid ads suggested. "If It Was Your Woman This Happened To ..." meant one thing, and movies were years away from license to depict that onscreen. Notion of "her man" riding south to "avenge" the act was also not fulfilled, short of motive painted very broad and having nothing to do with an assault that does not take place. This sort of art and graphics, however, was what sucked patronage into theatres for Gun Fury, a western few would mistake for anything other than ordinary. What stood it out, then and more so now, was application of 3-D, a process more than rehabilitated by what digital can now do.

Lately-out Gun Fury on Blu-Ray is at least as good as most 3-D of the era. Raoul Walsh directed, him with one functioning eye since 1929, of which some express wonder how he could perceive depth, but where was need of that for a man forty years in film by 1953? Instinct alone made seeing of result superfluous. Busy foreground and known tricks were familiar to the recipe, guns fired at the camera like in The Great Train Robbery (which RW probably saw first-run), plus jolt of a rattler leaping for the lens, a best shock effect I've so far seen in depth (we wonder who dreams up 3-D gags --- the director, camera crew, a brought-in consultant?). Distinction of Gun Fury is in story and dialogue, so 3-D could lie back as it has for sixty-five years and we'd still have an adequate show (Inferno a same sort of treat, flat or deep). Up and comer writers were at work, one of them Roy Huggins, who'd pen more westerns, then run the table once cowpokes took over television (Maverick was his). To Gun Fury depth, add that of heavies Phil Carey and Leo Gordon, both shaded well for interact with convention-serving Rock Hudson and Donna Reed.

High Noon made outdoor action a lure to grown-ups who liked nuance beyond black hat-white hat. So-called "adult" westerns, done both cheap and expensive, waited in wings as Saturday saddles were put permanent in 50's bunkhouse, Republic, then Columbia, even biggest names like Autry and Rogers, giving up spurs to thirty-minute TV or rodeo appearing. Seems kids did a lot of growing up during and after the war and wanted cowboys to speak plainer, result a lot of theatres doffing short-pants action in favor of leather slapped harder. I had a friend whose parents took him to a presumed kid appeal show that had The Law and Jake Wade for a second feature, that one tough as most came in postwar reboot of westerns. The boy was eight when exposed to what for him may have been a first theatrical western, but die was cast, and nothing older time cowpokes did after this could win him. The 50's were possibly a peak decade for westerns, which like crime thrillers or what's loosely called noir, were prolific as sand on a beach. How much of it have we still not accounted for? (I keep coming across good ones that are new to me)

Comin' At Ya In Promotional Stills

3-D features can look better on our TV's than they ever did in theatres. Snafu-ing was rife during fad peak. Much of what made ships sink was presentation foul-up. Never mind what could go wrong ... better to ask what went right. In wake of digital takeover, would there be anyone left who could sync up 35mm dual prints today? Talk about gone --- show me a booth that even has side by side 35mm projectors (outside collector cribs that won't give film up). Imagine if they had digital in 1953-54. 3-D in that event might have stayed for keeps. What always soured me was dimness of depth images, at least where projected (memory of botched 70's revivals hard to shake). Best result nowaday comes of flat screen television where you don simple specs rather than battery-operated goggles required for projection TV. Success of Twilight Time 3-D discs bode well for more of same, and Kino has announced The Maze, plus Sangaree, for 2018 release. Find out more about those at 3-D Archive.

Monday, March 12, 2018

When Movie Fights Spill Over Into Life

Manpower (1941) Breaks Loose For Real

Humphrey Bogart Visits The Set To Promote Peace Between The Quarrelsome Boys

This Is No Joke --- Robinson's On A Rampage!
There was a fight between Edward G. Robinson and George Raft on the set of Manpower and it was real. The incident happened on April 26, 1941 and was caught by a photographer for LIFE magazine, where it adorned a full page and made national headlines ("they," referring to Robinson and Raft, "profoundly dislike each other off set location"). It was one thing for a fan mag to note on-set tensions, but when a major and mainstream publication reported trouble (LIFE's headline cited an "Impromptu Fight"), you knew there was truth being told. Some may still have figured the dust-up for a publicity gag, something staged to hypo Manpower's eventual release. The truth would reveal itself years later when author Rudy Behlmer dug into studio files and found memos detailing the imbroglio, these appearing in his 1985 book, Inside Warner Brothers (1935-1951), a great insider history. Seems the Manpower mess was all too genuine, and a real concern for both WB and the players involved. It did no one good to be seen as unprofessional or running a chaotic shop. To get loud publicity was one thing, but to be laughing stock of a press and industry was something else. This then, was an incident Warners could not let be repeated.

Warner's One-Sheet Exploits The Real-Life Fight
Manpower was a property no player at Warners would reject, being another whirlwind from writers Richard Macaulay and Jerry Wald, who had lately made They Drive By Night and Torrid Zone such fun. Mark Hellinger had also prepped Manpower as associate producer but fell out so severely with Hal Wallis that he left the studio. Anyone who could read (at least the script) knew that Manpower would be popular. Humphrey Bogart had been assigned and very much wanted to do it, but proposed co-star George Raft loudly said he would not appear in another film with Humphrey Bogart. Animosity seemed to be all on Raft's side, as Bogart tried to approach him and got rebuffed. Gossip about this got into the Independent Film Exhibitor's Bulletin on 4-5-41, so strife on Manpower was known well before the bigger blow to come. Bogart's part was recast with Edward G. Robinson, but Raft didn't care for that either. He was hateful toward Robinson and cursed him in front of cast and crew. Robinson tried to be reasonable, but Raft wanted none of it. His was a thuggish nature, no surprise considering his background (organized crime back East), and Robinson had reason to be afraid of him. It all came to boil during a scene where Raft had to pull Robinson off a guy and he instead roughed up Eddie G. and got a fist swung in return. The two had to be separated, and not for a last time.

Offscreen Playmates Dietrich and Raft Bat 'Er Up

The shutterbug who caught the moment got a dream of a candid capture, two major stars going at each other like mad dogs. Warners might have stopped him and took the negative, but evidently chose not to. Surely they had juice to ice the story and photo, but maybe here was a calculated risk worth taking. The studio could not have bought publicity this good. The problem was serious, however, and WB prepared a letter to the Screen Actor's Guild. Robinson, being the first to calm down, made a suggestion that they let the thing drop and not get others involved. A half-day's money had been lost, but filming resumed, hands shook and all promising to behave. Robinson and Raft made up thoroughly and even did another picture together (A Bullet For Joey in 1954), but the Manpower event entered H'wood folklore and the two were still being asked about it toward their respective ends. By then, of course, it was dust of history. Manpower had been playing late shows on a loop, and few viewers knew what had happened on a set so many years before. What we presently enjoy from Warner Archive and regularly at TCM is spent fuse of a then-TNT combination of Robinson and Raft with Marlene Dietrich, and incidentally as good a dose of Raoul Walsh as any of his actioners for WB. All Manpower presently lacks is an upgrade to High-Definition.

I watched the Archive disc last night. Quality was okay, that is if this were 1985.  There was noise on the track and I don't think it was my television. The better movies, of course, can overcome viewing conditions like this. Manpower has scenes that are exhilarating, others to remind you this was way back and standards of funny were different then. From latter category is Alan Hale sliding down a stair banister in his union suit. Hale and Frank McHugh are all over Manpower. If you can't abide them, don't watch. Action is plentiful, as in any guy stepping slightly out of line gets knocked silly, generally by hair trigger Robinson, who is a power pole worker with best pal Raft. Eddie had played the man who cured syphilis just a year before. To arguments he had no range, I say present these two performances. Manpower was largely filched from an oldie, also with Robinson, called Tiger Shark. Too many E.G.'s had him as a frog no woman with eyes would want. Bette Davis unkindly said it made her ill to have to kiss him in Kid Galahad. Eddie's own wife seems to have treated him like some of the women in his films, but ... name a better or more dynamic actor.

George Raft kept barrels of apples all through his house because they gave it a nice smell. He also had five or six different women a day, according to reliable-or-not sources. Raft probably didn't care that he blew so much opportunity in the movies. He died broke, but that may not have bothered him either. Say what you will about Raft being a dud actor, but I enjoy him anytime. He's really the best thing about Manpower. Dietrich at forty is a little past believable as an ex-con clip-joint hostess, especially as colleagues beef about being in their mid-twenties and almost played out. There's a scene where Raft slaps Dietrich down a flight of stairs and yes, it's actually her who takes the spill. I've read MD got an injury because George failed to pull the blow. All was apparently forgiven because Marlene moved in with him toward an end of production. Manpower was shot all-indoors and uses toy trucks, poles, and even toy men. It is charming for fakery that films wouldn't (couldn't) use much longer. I thought how this really isn't so different from celebration of unreal that is present day CGI, only Manpower was built by hand and so at least earns a sentimental regard.
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